[Accents] [Pronouns] [Gender] [Forming Plural] [Articles] [Some Sound Spelling] [Typing Accents

ACCENTS IN SPANISH
 
1.
If word ends in -n -s or a vowel, the stress falls on next-to-last syllabus. 
If you remember that these - está, están, estás - are exceptions, than you remember the rule.
2.
Words with all the other endings have an accent on the last syllabus.
3.
Question and exclamation words - comó, dónde, qué - always have accents.
4.
Demonstrative pronouns have an accent as opposed to demonstrative adjectives. 
éste -- este libro, éstas -- estas blusas
5.
Certain words change their meaning when written with an accent.
cómo how como like
give (command) de of, from
él he/him el the
más more mas but
me mi my
I know se 3rd person pronoun
yes si if
sólo only (adverb) solo alone
tea te you
you tu your
 


PRONOUNS IN SPANISH
 
 Personal 
 
Direct 
 
Indirect 
 
Reflexive 
 
Unstressed 
Posessive
Stressed Possessive
After Preposition 
Yo
me
me
me
mi/mis
mío/a/os/as
te
te
te
tu/tus
tuyo/a/os/as
ti
Él/Ella/Ud
lo/la
le
se
su/sus
suyo/a/os/as
él/ella/Ud
Nosotros/as
nos
nos
nos
nuestro/a/os/as
nuestro/a/os/as
nosotros/as
Vosotros/as
os
os
os
vuestro/a/os/as
vuestro/a/os/as
vosotros/as
Ellos/Ellas/Uds
los/las
les
se
su/sus
suyo/a/os/as
ellos/ellas/Uds
For details see Object Pronouns -- Direct, Indirect and Reflexive.

GENDER IN SPANISH:
 
A
Referring to males and/or ending in -o
hombre, libro
B
Referring to females and/or ending in -a -ción -tad-dad
mujer, mesa, nación, libertad, universidad
C
Ones referring neither to males or females 
and having different endings can be of either gender
el lápiz, la clase, la tarde, la noche
D
Many nouns change gender by changing the last vowel 
or by adding -a to the last consonant
el compañero, la compañera, un profesor, la profesora
E
Many nouns have the same form and differ only by the article
el estudiante, la estudiante
!!!
Some nouns ending in -e change gender by changing it to -a
el presidente, la presidenta
!!!
El día is MASCULINE
el día
!!!
Many words ending in -ma are MASCULINE
el problema, el sistema, el programa

FORMING PLURAL IN SPANISH:
 
1) ending in vowel
vowel + s
el/un libro 
la/una mesa
los/unos libros 
las/unas mesas
2) ending in consonant
consonant + es
un papel 
la universidad
unos papeles 
las universidades
3) ending in consonant z
z -> ces
el lapiz
los lapices
!!! to refer to a group consisting of both 
males and females masculine plural is used
el amigo 
la amiga
los amigos

ARTICLES IN SPANISH
 
SINGULAR
Masculine Nouns
Feminine Nouns
Definite 
Articles
el hombre -- the man 
el libro -- the book
la mujer -- the woman 
la mesa -- the table
Indefinite 
Articles
un hombre -- a (one) man 
un libro -- a (one) book
una mujer -- a (one) woman 
una mesa -- a (one) table
 
PLURAL
Masculine Nouns
Feminine Nouns
Definite 
Articles
los hombres -- the men 
los libros -- the books
las mujeras -- the women 
las mesas -- the tables
Indefinite 
Articles
unos hombres -- some men 
unos libros -- some books
unas mujeras -- some woman 
unas mesas -- some table


SOME SOUND SPELLINGS
 
Hard C sound
ca que qui co cu
sacar, saque
S/Z sound
za ce ci zo zu
cazar, cace
Hard G sound
ga gue gui go gu
pagar, pague
Soft G sound
ja ge gi jo ju
 elija, elegir
As you see, two vowels -- e and i -- are exceptional.
To remember them, remember two words -- que and quien.


TYPING ACCENTS:
 
á
alt 160
alt 0225
ctrl ', a
é
alt 130
alt 0233
ctrl ', e
í
alt 161
alt 0237
ctrl ', i
ó
alt162
alt 0243
ctrl ', o
ú
alt 163
alt 0250
ctrl ', u
ñ
alt 164
alt 0241
shift + ctrl+~, n
Á
 
alt 0193
ctrl ', A
É
alt 144
alt 0201
ctrl ', E
Í
 
alt 0205
ctrl ', I
Ó
 
alt 0211
ctrl ', O
Ú
 
alt 0218
ctrl ', U
Ñ
alt 165
alt 0209
shift + ctrl+~, N
¿
alt 168
alt 0191
alt+shift + ctrl + ?
¡
alt 173
alt 0161
alt+shift + ctrl + !
 
The first two options wotk with the Number Pad which is located on the right hand side of a keyboard.
The last ones work only for MS Word.